European carriers lead the way when in comes "a-la-carte" revenue, ancillaries that passengers can add to their ticket, according to a report.
The IdeaWorksCompany and CarTrawler study shows European and Russian airlines brought in almost $32 billion from these add-ons in 2019, more than double the 2015 figure of around $14 billion.
Asian airlines came in second with $21 billion, again revealing a significant increase on 2015’s figure of $8.2 billion.
In 2019, total global a-la-carte revenue for carriers was estimated at $75.6 billion, according to the report.
The study takes into account revenue from elements such as fees for checked bags, seats, early boarding and on-board meals.
It also shows that low-cost airlines are often the most active in the area, with EasyJet, Eurowings and Ryanair emerging as the top three for add-on ancillaries.
Ancillary revenue from low-cost carriers in Europe accounts for 27% of all operating revenue for airlines across the region.
Overall, ancillary revenue represents about 12% of revenue for carriers in Europe.
Aileen McCormack, chief commercial officer at CarTrawler, says: "It is beyond doubt now that carriers which prioritise extensive choice architecture and a superior customer experience are significantly increasing their chances of reporting healthy profit margins.
"The adoption of a sophisticated ancillary revenue strategy must now be seen as a necessary step for all airlines that want to stay relevant as we enter a new decade."
The report also points to a blurring of the lines between traditional airlines and low-cost carriers, with older airlines now adopting basic economy fares and offering add-on products to passengers.